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uchar.c

/*
********************************************************************************
*   Copyright (C) 1996-2001, International Business Machines
*   Corporation and others.  All Rights Reserved.
********************************************************************************
*
* File UCHAR.C
*
* Modification History:
*
*   Date        Name        Description
*   04/02/97    aliu        Creation.
*   4/15/99     Madhu       Updated all the function definitions for C Implementation
*   5/20/99     Madhu       Added the function u_getVersion()
*   8/19/1999   srl         Upgraded scripts to Unicode3.0 
*   11/11/1999  weiv        added u_isalnum(), cleaned comments
*   01/11/2000  helena      Renamed u_getVersion to u_getUnicodeVersion.
*   06/20/2000  helena      OS/400 port changes; mostly typecast.
******************************************************************************
*/

#include "unicode/utypes.h"
#include "unicode/uchar.h"
#include "unicode/udata.h"
#include "unicode/uloc.h"
#include "unicode/uiter.h"
#include "umutex.h"
#include "cmemory.h"
#include "ucln_cmn.h"
#include "utrie.h"
#include "ustr_imp.h"
#include "uprops.h"

/* dynamically loaded Unicode character properties -------------------------- */

/*
 * loaded uprops.dat -
 * for a description of the file format, see icu/source/tools/genprops/store.c
 */
static const char DATA_NAME[] = "uprops";
static const char DATA_TYPE[] = "dat";

static UDataMemory *propsData=NULL;

static uint8_t formatVersion[4]={ 0, 0, 0, 0 };
static UVersionInfo dataVersion={ 3, 0, 0, 0 };

static UTrie propsTrie={ 0 }, propsVectorsTrie={ 0 };
static const uint32_t *pData32=NULL, *props32Table=NULL, *exceptionsTable=NULL, *propsVectors=NULL;
static const UChar *ucharsTable=NULL;
static int32_t countPropsVectors=0, propsVectorsColumns=0;

static int8_t havePropsData=0;

/* index values loaded from uprops.dat */
static int32_t indexes[UPROPS_INDEX_COUNT];

/* if bit 15 is set, then the folding offset is in bits 14..0 of the 16-bit trie result */
static int32_t U_CALLCONV
getFoldingPropsOffset(uint32_t data) {
    if(data&0x8000) {
        return (int32_t)(data&0x7fff);
    } else {
        return 0;
    }
}

static UBool
isAcceptable(void *context,
             const char *type, const char *name,
             const UDataInfo *pInfo) {
    if(
        pInfo->size>=20 &&
        pInfo->isBigEndian==U_IS_BIG_ENDIAN &&
        pInfo->charsetFamily==U_CHARSET_FAMILY &&
        pInfo->dataFormat[0]==0x55 &&   /* dataFormat="UPro" */
        pInfo->dataFormat[1]==0x50 &&
        pInfo->dataFormat[2]==0x72 &&
        pInfo->dataFormat[3]==0x6f &&
        pInfo->formatVersion[0]==3 &&
        pInfo->formatVersion[2]==UTRIE_SHIFT &&
        pInfo->formatVersion[3]==UTRIE_INDEX_SHIFT
    ) {
        uprv_memcpy(formatVersion, pInfo->formatVersion, 4);
        uprv_memcpy(dataVersion, pInfo->dataVersion, 4);
        return TRUE;
    } else {
        return FALSE;
    }
}

UBool
uchar_cleanup()
{
    if (propsData) {
        udata_close(propsData);
        propsData=NULL;
    }
    pData32=NULL;
    props32Table=NULL;
    exceptionsTable=NULL;
    ucharsTable=NULL;
    propsVectors=NULL;
    countPropsVectors=0;
    havePropsData=FALSE;
    return TRUE;
}

static int8_t
loadPropsData(void) {
    /* load Unicode character properties data from file if necessary */
    if(havePropsData==0) {
        UTrie trie={ 0 }, trie2={ 0 };
        UErrorCode errorCode=U_ZERO_ERROR;
        UDataMemory *data;
        const uint32_t *p=NULL;
        int32_t length;

        /* open the data outside the mutex block */
        data=udata_openChoice(NULL, DATA_TYPE, DATA_NAME, isAcceptable, NULL, &errorCode);
        if(U_FAILURE(errorCode)) {
            return havePropsData=-1;
        }

        p=(const uint32_t *)udata_getMemory(data);

        /* unserialize the trie; it is directly after the int32_t indexes[UPROPS_INDEX_COUNT] */
        length=(int32_t)p[UPROPS_PROPS32_INDEX]*4;
        length=utrie_unserialize(&trie, (const uint8_t *)(p+UPROPS_INDEX_COUNT), length-64, &errorCode);
        if(U_FAILURE(errorCode)) {
            udata_close(data);
            return havePropsData=-1;
        }
        trie.getFoldingOffset=getFoldingPropsOffset;

        /* unserialize the properties vectors trie, if any */
        if( p[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_TRIE_INDEX]!=0 &&
            p[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_VECTORS_INDEX]!=0
        ) {
            length=(int32_t)(p[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_VECTORS_INDEX]-p[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_TRIE_INDEX])*4;
            length=utrie_unserialize(&trie2, (const uint8_t *)(p+p[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_TRIE_INDEX]), length, &errorCode);
            if(U_FAILURE(errorCode)) {
                uprv_memset(&trie2, 0, sizeof(trie2));
            } else {
                trie2.getFoldingOffset=getFoldingPropsOffset;
            }
        }

        /* in the mutex block, set the data for this process */
        umtx_lock(NULL);
        if(propsData==NULL) {
            propsData=data;
            data=NULL;
            pData32=p;
            p=NULL;
            uprv_memcpy(&propsTrie, &trie, sizeof(trie));
            uprv_memcpy(&propsVectorsTrie, &trie2, sizeof(trie2));
        }
        umtx_unlock(NULL);

        /* initialize some variables */
        uprv_memcpy(indexes, pData32, sizeof(indexes));
        props32Table=pData32+indexes[UPROPS_PROPS32_INDEX];
        exceptionsTable=pData32+indexes[UPROPS_EXCEPTIONS_INDEX];
        ucharsTable=(const UChar *)(pData32+indexes[UPROPS_EXCEPTIONS_TOP_INDEX]);

        /* additional properties */
        if(indexes[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_VECTORS_INDEX]!=0) {
            propsVectors=pData32+indexes[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_VECTORS_INDEX];
            countPropsVectors=indexes[UPROPS_RESERVED_INDEX]-indexes[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_VECTORS_INDEX];
            propsVectorsColumns=indexes[UPROPS_ADDITIONAL_VECTORS_COLUMNS_INDEX];
        }

        havePropsData=1;

        /* if a different thread set it first, then close the extra data */
        if(data!=NULL) {
            udata_close(data); /* NULL if it was set correctly */
        }
    }

    return havePropsData;
}

/* constants and macros for access to the data */
enum {
    EXC_UPPERCASE,
    EXC_LOWERCASE,
    EXC_TITLECASE,
    EXC_UNUSED,
    EXC_NUMERIC_VALUE,
    EXC_DENOMINATOR_VALUE,
    EXC_MIRROR_MAPPING,
    EXC_SPECIAL_CASING,
    EXC_CASE_FOLDING
};

/* getting a uint32_t properties word from the data */
#define HAVE_DATA (havePropsData>0 || (havePropsData==0 && loadPropsData()>0))
#define VALIDATE(c) (((uint32_t)(c))<=0x10ffff && HAVE_DATA)
#define GET_PROPS_UNSAFE(c, result) \
    UTRIE_GET16(&propsTrie, c, result); \
    (result)=props32Table[(result)]
#define GET_PROPS(c, result) \
    if(HAVE_DATA) { \
        GET_PROPS_UNSAFE(c, result); \
    } else { \
        (result)=0; \
    }
#define PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props) ((props)&UPROPS_EXCEPTION_BIT)
#define GET_CATEGORY(props) ((props)&0x1f)
#define GET_NUMERIC_TYPE(props) (((props)>>UPROPS_NUMERIC_TYPE_SHIFT)&7)
/* ### TODO: 2 or 3 bits for numericType?! */
#define GET_UNSIGNED_VALUE(props) ((props)>>UPROPS_VALUE_SHIFT)
#define GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props) ((int32_t)(props)>>UPROPS_VALUE_SHIFT)
#define GET_EXCEPTIONS(props) (exceptionsTable+GET_UNSIGNED_VALUE(props))

/* finding an exception value */
#define HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(flags, index) ((flags)&(1UL<<(index)))

/* number of bits in an 8-bit integer value */
#define EXC_GROUP 8
static const uint8_t flagsOffset[256]={
    0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4,
    1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5,
    1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5,
    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
    1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5,
    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
    3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7,
    1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5,
    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
    3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7,
    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
    3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7,
    3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7,
    4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7, 5, 6, 6, 7, 6, 7, 7, 8
};

#define ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(flags, index, offset) { \
    if((index)>=EXC_GROUP) { \
        (offset)+=flagsOffset[(flags)&((1<<EXC_GROUP)-1)]; \
        (flags)>>=EXC_GROUP; \
        (index)-=EXC_GROUP; \
    } \
    (offset)+=flagsOffset[(flags)&((1<<(index))-1)]; \
}

U_CFUNC UBool
uprv_haveProperties() {
    return (UBool)HAVE_DATA;
}

/* API functions ------------------------------------------------------------ */

/* Gets the Unicode character's general category.*/
U_CAPI int8_t U_EXPORT2
00260 u_charType(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (int8_t)GET_CATEGORY(props);
}

/* Enumerate all code points with their general categories. */
struct _EnumTypeCallback {
    UCharEnumTypeRange *enumRange;
    const void *context;
};

static uint32_t U_CALLCONV
_enumTypeValue(const void *context, uint32_t value) {
    /* access the general category from the 32-bit properties, and those from the 16-bit trie value */
    return GET_CATEGORY(props32Table[value]);
}

static UBool U_CALLCONV
_enumTypeRange(const void *context, UChar32 start, UChar32 limit, uint32_t value) {
    /* just cast the value to UCharCategory */
    return ((struct _EnumTypeCallback *)context)->
        enumRange(((struct _EnumTypeCallback *)context)->context,
                  start, limit, (UCharCategory)value);
}

U_CAPI void U_EXPORT2
00287 u_enumCharTypes(UCharEnumTypeRange *enumRange, const void *context) {
    struct _EnumTypeCallback callback;

    if(enumRange==NULL || !HAVE_DATA) {
        return;
    }

    callback.enumRange=enumRange;
    callback.context=context;
    utrie_enum(&propsTrie, _enumTypeValue, _enumTypeRange, &callback);
}

/* Checks if ch is a lower case letter.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00301 u_islower(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(GET_CATEGORY(props)==U_LOWERCASE_LETTER);
}

/* Checks if ch is an upper case letter.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00309 u_isupper(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(GET_CATEGORY(props)==U_UPPERCASE_LETTER);
}

/* Checks if ch is a title case letter; usually upper case letters.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00317 u_istitle(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(GET_CATEGORY(props)==U_TITLECASE_LETTER);
}

/* Checks if ch is a decimal digit. */
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00325 u_isdigit(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER|1UL<<U_OTHER_NUMBER|1UL<<U_LETTER_NUMBER)
           )!=0);
    /* ### TODO: should this not check only U_DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER?! */
}

/* Checks if the Unicode character is a letter.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00336 u_isalpha(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_MODIFIER_LETTER|1UL<<U_OTHER_LETTER)
           )!=0);
}

/* Checks if ch is a letter or a decimal digit */
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00346 u_isalnum(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER|1UL<<U_OTHER_NUMBER|1UL<<U_LETTER_NUMBER|
             1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_MODIFIER_LETTER|1UL<<U_OTHER_LETTER)
           )!=0);
}

/* Checks if ch is a unicode character with assigned character type.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00357 u_isdefined(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(GET_CATEGORY(props)!=0);
}

/* Checks if the Unicode character is a base form character that can take a diacritic.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00365 u_isbase(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER|1UL<<U_OTHER_NUMBER|1UL<<U_LETTER_NUMBER|
             1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_MODIFIER_LETTER|1UL<<U_OTHER_LETTER|
             1UL<<U_NON_SPACING_MARK|1UL<<U_ENCLOSING_MARK|1UL<<U_COMBINING_SPACING_MARK)
           )!=0);
}

/* Checks if the Unicode character is a control character.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00377 u_iscntrl(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(
           ((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_CONTROL_CHAR|1UL<<U_FORMAT_CHAR|1UL<<U_LINE_SEPARATOR|1UL<<U_PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR)
           )!=0);
}

/* Some control characters that are used as space. */
#define IS_THAT_CONTROL_SPACE(c) \
    ((c>=0x09 && c <= 0x0d) || (c>=0x1c && c <=0x1f) || c==0x85)

/* Checks if the Unicode character is a space character.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00392 u_isspace(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)((((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_SPACE_SEPARATOR|1UL<<U_LINE_SEPARATOR|1UL<<U_PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR)
           )!=0) || IS_THAT_CONTROL_SPACE(c));
}

/* Checks if the Unicode character is a whitespace character.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00402 u_isWhitespace(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)((((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_SPACE_SEPARATOR|1UL<<U_LINE_SEPARATOR|1UL<<U_PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR)
           )!=0 &&
           c!=0xa0 && c!=0x202f && c!=0xfeff) || /* exclude no-break spaces */
           IS_THAT_CONTROL_SPACE(c));
}

/* Checks if the Unicode character is printable.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00414 u_isprint(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(
            ((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            ~(1UL<<U_UNASSIGNED|
              1UL<<U_CONTROL_CHAR|1UL<<U_FORMAT_CHAR|1UL<<U_PRIVATE_USE_CHAR|1UL<<U_SURROGATE|
              1UL<<U_GENERAL_OTHER_TYPES|1UL<<31)
           )!=0);
}

/* Checks if the Unicode character can start a Unicode identifier.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00427 u_isIDStart(UChar32 c) {
    /* same as u_isalpha() */
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_MODIFIER_LETTER|1UL<<U_OTHER_LETTER)
           )!=0);
}

/* Checks if the Unicode character can be a Unicode identifier part other than starting the
 identifier.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00439 u_isIDPart(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(
           ((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER|1UL<<U_LETTER_NUMBER|
             1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_MODIFIER_LETTER|1UL<<U_OTHER_LETTER|
             1UL<<U_CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION|1UL<<U_COMBINING_SPACING_MARK|1UL<<U_NON_SPACING_MARK)
           )!=0 ||
           u_isIDIgnorable(c));
}

/*Checks if the Unicode character can be ignorable in a Java or Unicode identifier.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00453 u_isIDIgnorable(UChar32 c) {
    return (UBool)((uint32_t)c<=8 ||
           (uint32_t)(c-0xe)<=(0x1b-0xe) ||
           (uint32_t)(c-0x7f)<=(0x9f-0x7f) ||
           (uint32_t)(c-0x200a)<=(0x200f-0x200a) ||
           (uint32_t)(c-0x206a)<=(0x206f-0x206a) ||
           c==0xfeff);
}

/*Checks if the Unicode character can start a Java identifier.*/
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00464 u_isJavaIDStart(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(
           ((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_MODIFIER_LETTER|1UL<<U_OTHER_LETTER|
             1UL<<U_CURRENCY_SYMBOL|1UL<<U_CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION)
           )!=0);
}

/*Checks if the Unicode character can be a Java identifier part other than starting the
 * identifier.
 */
U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00478 u_isJavaIDPart(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(
           ((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&
            (1UL<<U_DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER|1UL<<U_LETTER_NUMBER|
             1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_MODIFIER_LETTER|1UL<<U_OTHER_LETTER|
             1UL<<U_CURRENCY_SYMBOL|1UL<<U_CONNECTOR_PUNCTUATION|
             1UL<<U_COMBINING_SPACING_MARK|1UL<<U_NON_SPACING_MARK)
           )!=0 ||
           u_isIDIgnorable(c));
}

/* Transforms the Unicode character to its lower case equivalent.*/
U_CAPI UChar32 U_EXPORT2
00493 u_tolower(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
        if((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&(1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER)) {
            return c+GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
        }
    } else {
        const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
        uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe;
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_LOWERCASE)) {
            int i=EXC_LOWERCASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            return (UChar32)*pe;
        }
    }
    return c; /* no mapping - return c itself */
}
    
/* Transforms the Unicode character to its upper case equivalent.*/
U_CAPI UChar32 U_EXPORT2
00515 u_toupper(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
        if(GET_CATEGORY(props)==U_LOWERCASE_LETTER) {
            return c-GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
        }
    } else {
        const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
        uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe;
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_UPPERCASE)) {
            int i=EXC_UPPERCASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            return (UChar32)*pe;
        }
    }
    return c; /* no mapping - return c itself */
}

/* Transforms the Unicode character to its title case equivalent.*/
U_CAPI UChar32 U_EXPORT2
00537 u_totitle(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
        if(GET_CATEGORY(props)==U_LOWERCASE_LETTER) {
            /* here, titlecase is same as uppercase */
            return c-GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
        }
    } else {
        const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
        uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe;
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_TITLECASE)) {
            int i=EXC_TITLECASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            return (UChar32)*pe;
        } else if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_UPPERCASE)) {
            /* here, titlecase is same as uppercase */
            int i=EXC_UPPERCASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            return (UChar32)*pe;
        }
    }
    return c; /* no mapping - return c itself */
}

U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
00565 u_charDigitValue(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props, numericType;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    numericType=GET_NUMERIC_TYPE(props);
#if 0
    /* ### TODO: new numericType==4 for Han numbers?! */
    if(numericType==0) {
        return -1;
    }
#endif

    if(numericType==1) {
        if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
            return GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
        } else {
            const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
            uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe;
            if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_NUMERIC_VALUE)) {
                int i=EXC_NUMERIC_VALUE;
                ++pe;
                ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
                return (int32_t)*pe;
            }
        }
    }

    /* ### TODO: new numericType==4 for Han numbers?! */

    /* if there is no value in the properties table, then check for some special characters */
    switch(c) {
    case 0x3007:    return 0; /* Han Zero*/
    case 0x4e00:    return 1; /* Han One*/
    case 0x4e8c:    return 2; /* Han Two*/
    case 0x4e09:    return 3; /* Han Three*/
    case 0x56d8:    return 4; /* Han Four*/
    case 0x4e94:    return 5; /* Han Five*/
    case 0x516d:    return 6; /* Han Six*/
    case 0x4e03:    return 7; /* Han Seven*/
    case 0x516b:    return 8; /* Han Eight*/
    case 0x4e5d:    return 9; /* Han Nine*/
    default:        return -1; /* no value */
    }
}

/* Gets the character's linguistic directionality.*/
U_CAPI UCharDirection U_EXPORT2
00611 u_charDirection(UChar32 c) {   
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    if(props!=0) {
        return (UCharDirection)((props>>UPROPS_BIDI_SHIFT)&0x1f);
    } else {
        return U_BOUNDARY_NEUTRAL;
    }
}

U_CAPI UBool U_EXPORT2
00622 u_isMirrored(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    return (UBool)(props&(1UL<<UPROPS_MIRROR_SHIFT) ? TRUE : FALSE);
}

U_CAPI UChar32 U_EXPORT2
00629 u_charMirror(UChar32 c) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    if((props&(1UL<<UPROPS_MIRROR_SHIFT))==0) {
        /* not mirrored - the value is not a mirror offset */
        return c;
    } else if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
        return c+GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
    } else {
        const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
        uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe;
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_MIRROR_MAPPING)) {
            int i=EXC_MIRROR_MAPPING;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            return (UChar32)*pe;
        } else {
            return c;
        }
    }
}

/* ICU 2.1: u_getCombiningClass() moved to unorm.cpp */

U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
00654 u_digit(UChar32 ch, int8_t radix) {
    int8_t value;
    if((uint8_t)(radix-2)<=(36-2)) {
        value=(int8_t)u_charDigitValue(ch);
        if(value<0) {
            /* ch is not a decimal digit, try latin letters */
            if(ch>=0x61 && ch<=0x7A) {
                value=(int8_t)(ch-0x57);  /* ch - 'a' + 10 */
            } else if(ch>=0x41 && ch<=0x5A) {
                value=(int8_t)(ch-0x37);  /* ch - 'A' + 10 */
            }
        }
    } else {
        value=-1;   /* invalid radix */
    }
    return (int8_t)((value<radix) ? value : -1);
}

U_CAPI UChar32 U_EXPORT2
00673 u_forDigit(int32_t digit, int8_t radix) {
    if((uint8_t)(radix-2)>(36-2) || (uint32_t)digit>=(uint32_t)radix) {
        return 0;
    } else if(digit<10) {
        return (UChar32)(0x30+digit);
    } else {
        return (UChar32)((0x61-10)+digit);
    }
}

/* static data tables ------------------------------------------------------- */

static const UChar cellWidthRanges[] =
{
    0x0000, /* general scripts area*/
    0x1100, /* combining Hangul choseong*/
    0x1160, /* combining Hangul jungseong and jongseong*/
    0x1e00, /* Latin Extended Additional, Greek Extended*/
    0x2000, /* symbols and punctuation*/
    0x3000, /* CJK phonetics & symbols, CJK ideographs, Hangul syllables*/
    0xd800, /* surrogates, private use*/
    0xf900, /* CJK compatibility ideographs*/
    0xfb00, /* alphabetic presentation forms, Arabic presentations forms A, combining half marks*/
    0xfe30, /* CJK compatibility forms, small form variants*/
    0xfe70, /* Arabic presentation forms B*/
    0xff00, /* fullwidth ASCII*/
    0xff60, /* halfwidth, CJK punctuation, Katakana, Hangul Jamo*/
    0xffe0, /* fullwidth punctuation and currency signs*/
    0xffe8, /* halfwidth forms, arrows, and shapes*/
    0xfff0  /* specials*/
};

static const UChar cellWidthValues[] =
{
    U_HALF_WIDTH,    /* general scripts area*/
    U_FULL_WIDTH,    /* combining Hangul choseong*/
    U_ZERO_WIDTH,    /* combining Hangul jungseong and jongseong*/
    U_HALF_WIDTH,    /* Latin extended aAdditional, Greek extended*/
    U_NEUTRAL_WIDTH, /* symbols and punctuation*/
    U_FULL_WIDTH,    /* CJK phonetics & symbols, CJK ideographs, Hangul syllables*/
    U_NEUTRAL_WIDTH, /* surrogates, private use*/
    U_FULL_WIDTH,    /* CJK compatibility ideographs*/
    U_HALF_WIDTH,    /* alphabetic presentation forms, Arabic presentations forms A, combining half marks*/
    U_FULL_WIDTH,    /* CJK compatibility forms, small form variants*/
    U_HALF_WIDTH,    /* Arabic presentation forms B*/
    U_FULL_WIDTH,    /* fullwidth ASCII*/
    U_HALF_WIDTH,    /* halfwidth CJK punctuation, Katakana, Hangul Jamo*/
    U_FULL_WIDTH,    /* fullwidth punctuation and currency signs*/
    U_HALF_WIDTH,    /* halfwidth forms, arrows, and shapes*/
    U_ZERO_WIDTH     /* specials*/
};

#define NUM_CELL_WIDTH_VALUES (sizeof(cellWidthValues)/sizeof(cellWidthValues[0]))
/* Gets table cell width of the Unicode character.*/
U_CAPI uint16_t U_EXPORT2
00728 u_charCellWidth(UChar32 ch)
{
    int16_t i;
    int32_t type = u_charType(ch);

    /* surrogate support is still incomplete */
    if((uint32_t)ch>0xffff) {
        return U_ZERO_WIDTH;
    }

    /* these Unicode character types are scattered throughout the Unicode range, so
     special-case for them*/
    switch (type) {
        case U_UNASSIGNED:
        case U_NON_SPACING_MARK:
        case U_ENCLOSING_MARK:
        case U_LINE_SEPARATOR:
        case U_PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR:
        case U_CONTROL_CHAR:
        case U_FORMAT_CHAR:
            return U_ZERO_WIDTH;

        default:
            /* for all remaining characters, find out which Unicode range they belong to using
               the table above, and then look up the appropriate return value in that table*/
            for (i = 0; i < (int16_t)NUM_CELL_WIDTH_VALUES; ++i) {
                if (ch < cellWidthRanges[i]) {
                    break;
                }
            }
            --i;
            return cellWidthValues[i];
    }
}

U_CAPI void U_EXPORT2
00764 u_getUnicodeVersion(UVersionInfo versionArray) {
    if(versionArray!=NULL) {
        if(HAVE_DATA) {
            uprv_memcpy(versionArray, dataVersion, U_MAX_VERSION_LENGTH);
        } else {
            uprv_memset(versionArray, 0, U_MAX_VERSION_LENGTH);
        }
    }
}

U_CFUNC uint32_t
u_getUnicodeProperties(UChar32 c, int32_t column) {
    uint16_t vecIndex;

    if( !HAVE_DATA || countPropsVectors==0 ||
        (uint32_t)c>0x10ffff ||
        column<0 || column>=propsVectorsColumns
    ) {
        return 0;
    }

    UTRIE_GET16(&propsVectorsTrie, c, vecIndex);
    return propsVectors[vecIndex+column];
}

/* string casing ------------------------------------------------------------ */

/*
 * These internal string case mapping functions are here instead of ustring.c
 * because we need efficient access to the character properties.
 *
 * This section contains helper functions that check for conditions
 * in the input text surrounding the current code point
 * according to SpecialCasing.txt.
 *
 * Starting with ICU 2.1, the "surrounding text" is passed in as an instance of
 * UCharIterator to allow the core case mapping functions to be used
 * inside transliterators (using Replaceable instead of UnicodeString/UChar *)
 * etc.
 *
 * Each helper function gets the index
 * - after the current code point if it looks at following text
 * - before the current code point if it looks at preceding text
 */

enum {
    LOC_ROOT,
    LOC_TURKISH,
    LOC_LITHUANIAN
};

static int32_t
getCaseLocale(const char *locale) {
    char lang[32];
    UErrorCode errorCode;
    int32_t length;

    errorCode=U_ZERO_ERROR;
    length=uloc_getLanguage(locale, lang, sizeof(lang), &errorCode);
    if(U_FAILURE(errorCode) || length!=2) {
        return LOC_ROOT;
    }

    if( (lang[0]=='t' && lang[1]=='r') ||
        (lang[0]=='a' && lang[1]=='z')
    ) {
        return LOC_TURKISH;
    } else if(lang[0]=='l' && lang[1]=='t') {
        return LOC_LITHUANIAN;
    } else {
        return LOC_ROOT;
    }
}

/* Is case-ignorable? In Unicode 3.1.1, is {HYPHEN, SOFT HYPHEN, {Mn}} ? (Expected to change!) */
static U_INLINE UBool
isCaseIgnorable(UChar32 c, uint32_t category) {
    return (UBool)(category==U_NON_SPACING_MARK || c==0x2010 || c==0xad);
}

/* Is followed by {case-ignorable}* {Ll, Lu, Lt}  ? */
static UBool
isFollowedByCasedLetter(UCharIterator *iter, int32_t index) {
    /* This is volatile because AIX 5.1 Visual Age 5.0 in 32-bit mode can't
        optimize this correctly. It couldn't optimize (1UL<<category)&0xE
    */
    volatile uint32_t category;
    uint32_t props;
    int32_t c;

    if(iter==NULL) {
        return FALSE;
    }

    iter->move(iter, index, UITER_ZERO);
    for(;;) {
        c=uiter_next32(iter);
        if(c<0) {
            break;
        }
        GET_PROPS_UNSAFE(c, props);
        category=GET_CATEGORY(props);
        if((1UL<<category)&(1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER)) {
            return TRUE; /* followed by cased letter */
        }
        if(!isCaseIgnorable(c, category)) {
            return FALSE; /* not ignorable */
        }
    }

    return FALSE; /* not followed by cased letter */
}

/* Is preceded by {Ll, Lu, Lt} {case-ignorable}*  ? */
static UBool
isPrecededByCasedLetter(UCharIterator *iter, int32_t index) {
    /* This is volatile because AIX 5.1 Visual Age 5.0 in 32-bit mode can't
        optimize this correctly. It couldn't optimize (1UL<<category)&0xE
    */
    volatile uint32_t category;
    uint32_t props;
    int32_t c;

    if(iter==NULL) {
        return FALSE;
    }

    iter->move(iter, index, UITER_ZERO);
    for(;;) {
        c=uiter_previous32(iter);
        if(c<0) {
            break;
        }
        GET_PROPS_UNSAFE(c, props);
        category=GET_CATEGORY(props);
        if((1UL<<category)&(1UL<<U_LOWERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER)) {
            return TRUE; /* preceded by cased letter */
        }
        if(!isCaseIgnorable(c, category)) {
            return FALSE; /* not ignorable */
        }
    }

    return FALSE; /* not followed by cased letter */
}

/* Is preceded by base character { 'i', 'j', U+012f, U+1e2d, U+1ecb } with no intervening cc=230 ? */
static UBool
isAfter_i(UCharIterator *iter, int32_t index) {
    int32_t c;
    uint8_t cc;

    if(iter==NULL) {
        return FALSE;
    }

    iter->move(iter, index, UITER_ZERO);
    for(;;) {
        c=uiter_previous32(iter);
        if(c<0) {
            break;
        }
        if(c==0x69 || c==0x6a || c==0x12f || c==0x1e2d || c==0x1ecb) {
            return TRUE; /* preceded by TYPE_i */
        }

        cc=u_getCombiningClass(c);
        if(cc==0 || cc==230) {
            return FALSE; /* preceded by different base character (not TYPE_i), or intervening cc==230 */
        }
    }

    return FALSE; /* not preceded by TYPE_i */
}

/* Is preceded by base character 'I' with no intervening cc=230 ? */
static UBool
isAfter_I(UCharIterator *iter, int32_t index) {
    int32_t c;
    uint8_t cc;

    if(iter==NULL) {
        return FALSE;
    }

    iter->move(iter, index, UITER_ZERO);
    for(;;) {
        c=uiter_previous32(iter);
        if(c<0) {
            break;
        }
        if(c==0x49) {
            return TRUE; /* preceded by I */
        }

        cc=u_getCombiningClass(c);
        if(cc==0 || cc==230) {
            return FALSE; /* preceded by different base character (not I), or intervening cc==230 */
        }
    }

    return FALSE; /* not preceded by I */
}

/* Is followed by one or more cc==230 ? */
static UBool
isFollowedByMoreAbove(UCharIterator *iter, int32_t index) {
    int32_t c;
    uint8_t cc;

    if(iter==NULL) {
        return FALSE;
    }

    iter->move(iter, index, UITER_ZERO);
    for(;;) {
        c=uiter_next32(iter);
        if(c<0) {
            break;
        }
        cc=u_getCombiningClass(c);
        if(cc==230) {
            return TRUE; /* at least one cc==230 following */
        }
        if(cc==0) {
            return FALSE; /* next base character, no more cc==230 following */
        }
    }

    return FALSE; /* no more cc==230 following */
}

/* Is followed by a dot above (without cc==230 in between) ? */
static UBool
isFollowedByDotAbove(UCharIterator *iter, int32_t index) {
    int32_t c;
    uint8_t cc;

    if(iter==NULL) {
        return FALSE;
    }

    iter->move(iter, index, UITER_ZERO);
    for(;;) {
        c=uiter_next32(iter);
        if(c<0) {
            break;
        }
        if(c==0x307) {
            return TRUE;
        }
        cc=u_getCombiningClass(c);
        if(cc==0 || cc==230) {
            return FALSE; /* next base character or cc==230 in between */
        }
    }

    return FALSE; /* no dot above following */
}

/* lowercasing -------------------------------------------------------------- */

/* internal, see ustr_imp.h */
U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
u_internalToLower(UChar32 c, UCharIterator *iter,
                  UChar *dest, int32_t destCapacity,
                  const char *locale) {
    UChar buffer[8];
    uint32_t props;
    UChar32 result;
    int32_t i, length;

    result=c;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
        if((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&(1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER)) {
            result=c+GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
        }
    } else {
        const UChar *u;
        const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
        uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe, specialCasing;
        int32_t minLength;

        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_SPECIAL_CASING)) {
            i=EXC_SPECIAL_CASING;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            specialCasing=*pe;
            /* fill u and length with the case mapping result string */
            if(specialCasing&0x80000000) {
                /* use hardcoded conditions and mappings */
                int32_t loc=getCaseLocale(locale),
                        srcIndex= iter!=NULL ? iter->getIndex(iter, UITER_CURRENT) : 0;

                if( loc==LOC_LITHUANIAN &&
                        /* base characters, find accents above */
                        (((c==0x49 || c==0x4a || c==0x12e) &&
                            isFollowedByMoreAbove(iter, srcIndex)) ||
                        /* precomposed with accent above, no need to find one */
                        (c==0xcc || c==0xcd || c==0x128))
                ) {
                    /* lithuanian: add a dot above if there are more accents above (to always have the dot) */
                    u=buffer;
                    buffer[1]=0x307;
                    switch(c) {
                    case 0x49:  /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I */
                        buffer[0]=0x69;
                        length=2;
                        break;
                    case 0x4a:  /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J */
                        buffer[0]=0x6a;
                        length=2;
                        break;
                    case 0x12e: /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH OGONEK */
                        buffer[0]=0x12f;
                        length=2;
                        break;
                    case 0xcc:  /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH GRAVE */
                        buffer[0]=0x69;
                        buffer[2]=0x300;
                        length=3;
                        break;
                    case 0xcd:  /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH ACUTE */
                        buffer[0]=0x69;
                        buffer[2]=0x301;
                        length=3;
                        break;
                    case 0x128: /* LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH TILDE */
                        buffer[0]=0x69;
                        buffer[2]=0x303;
                        length=3;
                        break;
                    default:
                        return 0; /* will not occur */
                    }
                /*
                 * Note: This handling of I and of dot above differs from Unicode 3.1.1's SpecialCasing-5.txt
                 * because the AFTER_i condition there does not work for decomposed I+dot above.
                 * This fix is being proposed to the UTC.
                 */
                } else if(loc==LOC_TURKISH && c==0x49 && !isFollowedByDotAbove(iter, srcIndex)) {
                    /* turkish: I maps to dotless i */
                    result=0x131;
                    goto single;
                    /* other languages (or turkish with decomposed I+dot above): I maps to i */
                } else if(c==0x307 && isAfter_I(iter, srcIndex-1) && !isFollowedByMoreAbove(iter, srcIndex)) {
                    /* decomposed I+dot above becomes i (see handling of U+0049 for turkish) and removes the dot above */
                    return 0; /* remove the dot (continue without output) */
                } else if(  c==0x3a3 &&
                            !isFollowedByCasedLetter(iter, srcIndex) &&
                            isPrecededByCasedLetter(iter, srcIndex-1)
                ) {
                    /* greek capital sigma maps depending on surrounding cased letters (see SpecialCasing-5.txt) */
                    result=0x3c2; /* greek small final sigma */
                    goto single;
                } else {
                    /* no known conditional special case mapping, use a normal mapping */
                    pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props); /* restore the initial exception pointer */
                    firstExceptionValue=*pe;
                    goto notSpecial;
                }
            } else {
                /* get the special case mapping string from the data file */
                u=ucharsTable+(specialCasing&0xffff);
                length=(int32_t)((*u++)&0x1f);
            }

            /* copy the result string */
            minLength = (length < destCapacity) ? length : destCapacity;
            i=0;
            while(i<minLength) {
                dest[i++]=*u++;
            }
            return length;
        }

notSpecial:
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_LOWERCASE)) {
            i=EXC_LOWERCASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            result=(UChar32)*pe;
        }
    }

single:
    length=UTF_CHAR_LENGTH(result);
    if(length<=destCapacity) {
        /* write result to dest */
        i=0;
        UTF_APPEND_CHAR_UNSAFE(dest, i, result);
    }
    return (result==c) ? -length : length;
}

/*
 * Lowercases [srcStart..srcLimit[ but takes
 * context [0..srcLength[ into account.
 */
U_CFUNC int32_t
u_internalStrToLower(UChar *dest, int32_t destCapacity,
                     const UChar *src, int32_t srcLength,
                     int32_t srcStart, int32_t srcLimit,
                     const char *locale,
                     UErrorCode *pErrorCode) {
    UCharIterator iter;
    uint32_t props;
    int32_t srcIndex, destIndex;
    UChar32 c;

    /* test early, once, if there is a data file */
    if(!HAVE_DATA) {
        *pErrorCode=U_FILE_ACCESS_ERROR;
        return 0;
    }

    /* set up local variables */
    uiter_setString(&iter, src, srcLength);

    /* case mapping loop */
    srcIndex=srcStart;
    destIndex=0;
    while(srcIndex<srcLimit) {
        UTF_NEXT_CHAR(src, srcIndex, srcLimit, c);
        GET_PROPS_UNSAFE(c, props);
        if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
            if((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&(1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER)) {
                c+=GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
            }

            /* handle 1:1 code point mappings from UnicodeData.txt */
            if(c<=0xffff) {
                if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                    dest[destIndex++]=(UChar)c;
                } else {
                    /* buffer overflow */
                    /* keep incrementing the destIndex for preflighting */
                    ++destIndex;
                }
            } else {
                if((destIndex+2)<=destCapacity) {
                    dest[destIndex++]=UTF16_LEAD(c);
                    dest[destIndex++]=UTF16_TRAIL(c);
                } else {
                    /* buffer overflow */
                    /* write the first surrogate if possible */
                    if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                        dest[destIndex]=UTF16_LEAD(c);
                    }
                    /* keep incrementing the destIndex for preflighting */
                    destIndex+=2;
                }
            }
        } else {
            /* handle all exceptions in u_internalToLower() */
            int32_t length;

            iter.move(&iter, srcIndex, UITER_ZERO);
            if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                length=u_internalToLower(c, &iter, dest+destIndex, destCapacity-destIndex, locale);
            } else {
                length=u_internalToLower(c, &iter, NULL, 0, locale);
            }
            if(length<0) {
                length=-length;
            }
            destIndex+=length;
        }
    }

    if(destIndex>destCapacity) {
        *pErrorCode=U_BUFFER_OVERFLOW_ERROR;
    }
    return destIndex;
}

/* uppercasing -------------------------------------------------------------- */

/* internal */
static int32_t
u_internalToUpperOrTitle(UChar32 c, UCharIterator *iter,
                         UChar *dest, int32_t destCapacity,
                         const char *locale,
                         UBool upperNotTitle) {
    uint32_t props;
    UChar32 result;
    int32_t i, length;

    result=c;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
        if(GET_CATEGORY(props)==U_LOWERCASE_LETTER) {
            result=c-GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
        }
    } else {
        const UChar *u;
        const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
        uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe, specialCasing;
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_SPECIAL_CASING)) {
            i=EXC_SPECIAL_CASING;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            specialCasing=*pe;
            /* fill u and length with the case mapping result string */
            if(specialCasing&0x80000000) {
                /* use hardcoded conditions and mappings */
                int32_t loc=getCaseLocale(locale),
                        srcIndex= iter!=NULL ? iter->getIndex(iter, UITER_CURRENT) : 0;

                if(loc==LOC_TURKISH && c==0x69) {
                    /* turkish: i maps to dotted I */
                    result=0x130;
                    goto single;
                } else if(loc==LOC_LITHUANIAN && c==0x307 && isAfter_i(iter, srcIndex-1)) {
                    /* lithuanian: remove DOT ABOVE after U+0069 "i" with upper or titlecase */
                    return 0; /* remove the dot (continue without output) */
                } else {
                    /* no known conditional special case mapping, use a normal mapping */
                    pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props); /* restore the initial exception pointer */
                    firstExceptionValue=*pe;
                    goto notSpecial;
                }
            } else {
                /* get the special case mapping string from the data file */
                u=ucharsTable+(specialCasing&0xffff);
                length=(int32_t)*u++;

                /* skip the lowercase result string */
                u+=length&0x1f;
                if(upperNotTitle) {
                    length=(length>>5)&0x1f;
                } else {
                    /* skip the uppercase result strings too */
                    u+=(length>>5)&0x1f;
                    length=(length>>10)&0x1f;
                }
            }

            /* copy the result string */
            i=0;
            while(i<length && i<destCapacity) {
                dest[i++]=*u++;
            }
            return length;
        }

notSpecial:
        if(!upperNotTitle && HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_TITLECASE)) {
            i=EXC_TITLECASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            result=(UChar32)*pe;
        } else if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_UPPERCASE)) {
            /* here, titlecase is same as uppercase */
            i=EXC_UPPERCASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            result=(UChar32)*pe;
        }
    }

single:
    length=UTF_CHAR_LENGTH(result);
    if(length<=destCapacity) {
        /* write result to dest */
        i=0;
        UTF_APPEND_CHAR_UNSAFE(dest, i, result);
    }
    return (result==c) ? -length : length;
}

/* internal, see ustr_imp.h */
U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
u_internalToUpper(UChar32 c, UCharIterator *iter,
                  UChar *dest, int32_t destCapacity,
                  const char *locale) {
    return u_internalToUpperOrTitle(c, iter, dest, destCapacity, locale, TRUE);
}

U_CFUNC int32_t
u_internalStrToUpper(UChar *dest, int32_t destCapacity,
                     const UChar *src, int32_t srcLength,
                     const char *locale,
                     UErrorCode *pErrorCode) {
    UCharIterator iter;
    uint32_t props;
    int32_t srcIndex, destIndex;
    UChar32 c;

    /* test early, once, if there is a data file */
    if(!HAVE_DATA) {
        *pErrorCode=U_FILE_ACCESS_ERROR;
        return 0;
    }

    /* set up local variables */
    uiter_setString(&iter, src, srcLength);

    /* case mapping loop */
    srcIndex=destIndex=0;
    while(srcIndex<srcLength) {
        UTF_NEXT_CHAR(src, srcIndex, srcLength, c);
        GET_PROPS_UNSAFE(c, props);
        if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
            if(GET_CATEGORY(props)==U_LOWERCASE_LETTER) {
                c-=GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
            }

            /* handle 1:1 code point mappings from UnicodeData.txt */
            if(c<=0xffff) {
                if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                    dest[destIndex++]=(UChar)c;
                } else {
                    /* buffer overflow */
                    /* keep incrementing the destIndex for preflighting */
                    ++destIndex;
                }
            } else {
                if((destIndex+2)<=destCapacity) {
                    dest[destIndex++]=UTF16_LEAD(c);
                    dest[destIndex++]=UTF16_TRAIL(c);
                } else {
                    /* buffer overflow */
                    /* write the first surrogate if possible */
                    if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                        dest[destIndex]=UTF16_LEAD(c);
                    }
                    /* keep incrementing the destIndex for preflighting */
                    destIndex+=2;
                }
            }
        } else {
            /* handle all exceptions in u_internalToUpper() */
            int32_t length;

            iter.move(&iter, srcIndex, UITER_ZERO);
            if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                length=u_internalToUpperOrTitle(c, &iter, dest+destIndex, destCapacity-destIndex, locale, TRUE);
            } else {
                length=u_internalToUpperOrTitle(c, &iter, NULL, 0, locale, TRUE);
            }
            if(length<0) {
                length=-length;
            }
            destIndex+=length;
        }
    }

    if(destIndex>destCapacity) {
        *pErrorCode=U_BUFFER_OVERFLOW_ERROR;
    }
    return destIndex;
}

/* titlecasing -------------------------------------------------------------- */

/* internal, see ustr_imp.h */
U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
u_internalToTitle(UChar32 c, UCharIterator *iter,
                  UChar *dest, int32_t destCapacity,
                  const char *locale) {
    return u_internalToUpperOrTitle(c, iter, dest, destCapacity, locale, FALSE);
}

/* case folding ------------------------------------------------------------- */

/*
 * Case folding is similar to lowercasing.
 * The result may be a simple mapping, i.e., a single code point, or
 * a full mapping, i.e., a string.
 * If the case folding for a code point is the same as its simple (1:1) lowercase mapping,
 * then only the lowercase mapping is stored.
 */

/* return the simple case folding mapping for c */
U_CAPI UChar32 U_EXPORT2
01441 u_foldCase(UChar32 c, uint32_t options) {
    uint32_t props;
    GET_PROPS(c, props);
    if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
        if((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&(1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER)) {
            return c+GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
        }
    } else {
        const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
        uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe;
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_CASE_FOLDING)) {
            const uint32_t *oldPE=pe;
            int i=EXC_CASE_FOLDING;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            props=*pe;
            if(props!=0) {
                /* return the simple mapping, if there is one */
                const UChar *uchars=ucharsTable+(props&0xffff);
                UChar32 simple;
                i=0;
                UTF_NEXT_CHAR_UNSAFE(uchars, i, simple);
                if(simple!=0) {
                    return simple;
                }
                /* fall through to use the lowercase exception value if there is no simple mapping */
                pe=oldPE;
            } else {
                /* special case folding mappings, hardcoded */
                if(options==U_FOLD_CASE_DEFAULT && (uint32_t)(c-0x130)<=1) {
                    /* map dotted I and dotless i to U+0069 small i */
                    return 0x69;
                }
                /* return c itself because it is excluded from case folding */
                return c;
            }
        }
        /* not else! - allow to fall through from above */
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_LOWERCASE)) {
            int i=EXC_LOWERCASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            return (UChar32)*pe;
        }
    }
    return c; /* no mapping - return c itself */
}

/* internal, see ustr_imp.h */
U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
u_internalFoldCase(UChar32 c,
                   UChar *dest, int32_t destCapacity,
                   uint32_t options) {
    uint32_t props;
    UChar32 result;
    int32_t i, length;

    result=c;
    GET_PROPS_UNSAFE(c, props);
    if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
        if((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&(1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER)) {
            /* same as lowercase */
            result=c+GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
        }
    } else {
        const uint32_t *pe=GET_EXCEPTIONS(props);
        uint32_t firstExceptionValue=*pe;
        if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_CASE_FOLDING)) {
            i=EXC_CASE_FOLDING;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            props=*pe;
            if(props!=0) {
                /* return the full mapping */
                const UChar *uchars=ucharsTable+(props&0xffff)+2;
                int32_t minLength;

                length=props>>24;
                minLength = (length < destCapacity) ? length : destCapacity;

                /* copy the result string */
                i=0;
                while(i<minLength) {
                    dest[i++]=*(uchars++);
                }
                return length;
            } else {
                /* special case folding mappings, hardcoded */
                if(options==U_FOLD_CASE_DEFAULT && (uint32_t)(c-0x130)<=1) {
                    /* map dotted I and dotless i to U+0069 small i */
                    result =0x69;
                    /* goto single; */
                }
                /* return c itself because it is excluded from case folding */
            }
        } else if(HAVE_EXCEPTION_VALUE(firstExceptionValue, EXC_LOWERCASE)) {
            i=EXC_LOWERCASE;
            ++pe;
            ADD_EXCEPTION_OFFSET(firstExceptionValue, i, pe);
            result=(UChar32)*pe;
        }
    }

/* single: */
    length=UTF_CHAR_LENGTH(result);
    if(length<=destCapacity) {
        /* write result to dest */
        i=0;
        UTF_APPEND_CHAR_UNSAFE(dest, i, result);
    }
    return (result==c) ? -length : length;
}

/* case-fold the source string using the full mappings */
U_CFUNC int32_t
u_internalStrFoldCase(UChar *dest, int32_t destCapacity,
                      const UChar *src, int32_t srcLength,
                      uint32_t options,
                      UErrorCode *pErrorCode) {
    uint32_t props;
    int32_t srcIndex, destIndex;
    UChar32 c;

    /* test early, once, if there is a data file */
    if(!HAVE_DATA) {
        *pErrorCode=U_FILE_ACCESS_ERROR;
        return 0;
    }

    /* case mapping loop */
    srcIndex=destIndex=0;
    while(srcIndex<srcLength) {
        UTF_NEXT_CHAR(src, srcIndex, srcLength, c);
        GET_PROPS_UNSAFE(c, props);
        if(!PROPS_VALUE_IS_EXCEPTION(props)) {
            if((1UL<<GET_CATEGORY(props))&(1UL<<U_UPPERCASE_LETTER|1UL<<U_TITLECASE_LETTER)) {
                c+=GET_SIGNED_VALUE(props);
            }

            /* handle 1:1 code point mappings from UnicodeData.txt */
            if(c<=0xffff) {
                if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                    dest[destIndex++]=(UChar)c;
                } else {
                    /* buffer overflow */
                    /* keep incrementing the destIndex for preflighting */
                    ++destIndex;
                }
            } else {
                if((destIndex+2)<=destCapacity) {
                    dest[destIndex++]=UTF16_LEAD(c);
                    dest[destIndex++]=UTF16_TRAIL(c);
                } else {
                    /* buffer overflow */
                    /* write the first surrogate if possible */
                    if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                        dest[destIndex]=UTF16_LEAD(c);
                    }
                    /* keep incrementing the destIndex for preflighting */
                    destIndex+=2;
                }
            }
        } else {
            /* handle all exceptions in u_internalFoldCase() */
            int32_t length;

            if(destIndex<destCapacity) {
                length=u_internalFoldCase(c, dest+destIndex, destCapacity-destIndex, options);
            } else {
                length=u_internalFoldCase(c, NULL, 0, options);
            }
            if(length<0) {
                length=-length;
            }
            destIndex+=length;
        }
    }

    if(destIndex>destCapacity) {
        *pErrorCode=U_BUFFER_OVERFLOW_ERROR;
    }
    return destIndex;
}

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