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sprintf.c

/*
*******************************************************************************
*
*   Copyright (C) 1998-1999, International Business Machines
*   Corporation and others.  All Rights Reserved.
*
*******************************************************************************
*
* File sprintf.c
*
* Modification History:
*
*   Date        Name            Description
*   02/08/2000  george          Creation. Copied from uprintf.c
*   03/27/2002  Mark Schneckloth Many fixes regarding alignment, null termination
*       (mschneckloth@atomz.com) and other various problems.
*******************************************************************************
*/

#include "unicode/utypes.h"
#include "sprintf.h"
#include "sprntf_p.h"
#include "unicode/ustdio.h"
#include "unicode/ustring.h"
#include "locbund.h"
#include "loccache.h"
#include "unicode/unum.h"
#include "unicode/udat.h"
#include "unicode/uloc.h"

#include "cmemory.h"
#include <ctype.h>


/* --- Prototypes ---------------------------- */

int32_t
u_sprintf_simple_percent_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                                 const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                                 const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_string_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                         const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                         const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_date_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                       const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                       const ufmt_args         *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_scientific_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                             const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                             const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_scidbl_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                         const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                         const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_uchar_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                        const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                        const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_currency_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                           const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                           const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_ustring_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                          const ufmt_args         *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_percent_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                          const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_time_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                       const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                       const ufmt_args         *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_spellout_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                           const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                           const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_hex_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                      const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                      const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_char_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                       const u_sprintf_spec_info         *info,
                       const ufmt_args              *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_integer_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                          const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_uinteger_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                           const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                           const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_double_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                         const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                         const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_count_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                        const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                        const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_octal_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                        const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                        const ufmt_args            *args);

int32_t
u_sprintf_pointer_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                          const ufmt_args            *args);

/* ANSI style formatting */
/* Use US-ASCII characters only for formatting */

/* % */
#define UFMT_SIMPLE_PERCENT {ufmt_simple_percent, u_sprintf_simple_percent_handler}
/* s */
#define UFMT_STRING         {ufmt_string, u_sprintf_string_handler}
/* c */
#define UFMT_CHAR           {ufmt_char, u_sprintf_char_handler}
/* d, i */
#define UFMT_INT            {ufmt_int, u_sprintf_integer_handler}
/* u */
#define UFMT_UINT           {ufmt_int, u_sprintf_uinteger_handler}
/* o */
#define UFMT_OCTAL          {ufmt_int, u_sprintf_octal_handler}
/* x, X */
#define UFMT_HEX            {ufmt_int, u_sprintf_hex_handler}
/* f */
#define UFMT_DOUBLE         {ufmt_double, u_sprintf_double_handler}
/* e, E */
#define UFMT_SCIENTIFIC     {ufmt_double, u_sprintf_scientific_handler}
/* g, G */
#define UFMT_SCIDBL         {ufmt_double, u_sprintf_scidbl_handler}
/* n */
#define UFMT_COUNT          {ufmt_count, u_sprintf_count_handler}

/* non-ANSI extensions */
/* Use US-ASCII characters only for formatting */

/* p */
#define UFMT_POINTER        {ufmt_pointer, u_sprintf_pointer_handler}
/* D */
#define UFMT_DATE           {ufmt_date, u_sprintf_date_handler}
/* T */
#define UFMT_TIME           {ufmt_date, u_sprintf_time_handler}
/* V */
#define UFMT_SPELLOUT       {ufmt_double, u_sprintf_spellout_handler}
/* P */
#define UFMT_PERCENT        {ufmt_double, u_sprintf_percent_handler}
/* M */
#define UFMT_CURRENCY       {ufmt_double, u_sprintf_currency_handler}
/* K */
#define UFMT_UCHAR          {ufmt_uchar, u_sprintf_uchar_handler}
/* U */
#define UFMT_USTRING        {ufmt_ustring, u_sprintf_ustring_handler}


#define UFMT_EMPTY {ufmt_empty, NULL}

struct u_sprintf_info {
    enum ufmt_type_info info;
    u_sprintf_handler handler;
};
typedef struct u_sprintf_info u_sprintf_info;

/* Use US-ASCII characters only for formatting. Most codepages have
characters 20-7F from Unicode. Using any other codepage specific
characters will make it very difficult to format the string on
non-Unicode machines */
static const u_sprintf_info g_u_sprintf_infos[108] = {
    /* 0x20 */
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_SIMPLE_PERCENT,UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,

    /* 0x30 */
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,

    /* 0x40 */
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_DATE,          UFMT_SCIENTIFIC,    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_SCIDBL,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_UCHAR,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_CURRENCY,      UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,

    /* 0x50 */
    UFMT_PERCENT,       UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_TIME,          UFMT_USTRING,       UFMT_SPELLOUT,      UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_HEX,           UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,

    /* 0x60 */
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_CHAR,
    UFMT_INT,           UFMT_SCIENTIFIC,    UFMT_DOUBLE,        UFMT_SCIDBL,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_INT,           UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_COUNT,         UFMT_OCTAL,

    /* 0x70 */
    UFMT_POINTER,       UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_STRING,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_UINT,          UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_HEX,           UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
    UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,         UFMT_EMPTY,
};

#define USPRINTF_NUM_FMT_HANDLERS sizeof(g_u_sprintf_infos)

/* We do not use handlers for 0-0x1f */
#define USPRINTF_BASE_FMT_HANDLERS 0x20

/* buffer size for formatting */
#define USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE 1024
#define USPRINTF_SYMBOL_BUFFER_SIZE 8

static UChar gNullStr[] = {0x28, 0x6E, 0x75, 0x6C, 0x6C, 0x29, 0}; /* "(null)" */
static UChar gSpaceStr[] = {0x20, 0}; /* " " */

U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
u_sprintf(UChar       *buffer,
          const char    *locale,
          const char    *patternSpecification,
          ... )
{
    va_list ap;
    int32_t written;

    va_start(ap, patternSpecification);
    written = u_vsnprintf(buffer, INT32_MAX, locale, patternSpecification, ap);
    va_end(ap);

    return written;
}

U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
u_sprintf_u(UChar     *buffer,
            const char     *locale,
            const UChar    *patternSpecification,
            ... )
{
    va_list ap;
    int32_t written;

    va_start(ap, patternSpecification);
    written = u_vsnprintf_u(buffer, INT32_MAX, locale, patternSpecification, ap);
    va_end(ap);

    return written;
}

U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2 /* U_CAPI ... U_EXPORT2 added by Peter Kirk 17 Nov 2001 */
u_vsprintf(UChar       *buffer,
           const char     *locale,
           const char     *patternSpecification,
           va_list         ap)
{
    return u_vsnprintf(buffer, INT32_MAX, locale, patternSpecification, ap);
}

U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
u_snprintf(UChar       *buffer,
           int32_t         count,
           const char    *locale,
           const char    *patternSpecification,
           ... )
{
    va_list ap;
    int32_t written;

    va_start(ap, patternSpecification);
    written = u_vsnprintf(buffer, count, locale, patternSpecification, ap);
    va_end(ap);

    return written;
}

U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2
u_snprintf_u(UChar     *buffer,
             int32_t        count,
             const char     *locale,
             const UChar    *patternSpecification,
             ... )
{
    va_list ap;
    int32_t written;

    va_start(ap, patternSpecification);
    written = u_vsnprintf_u(buffer, count, locale, patternSpecification, ap);
    va_end(ap);

    return written;
}

U_CAPI int32_t  U_EXPORT2 /* U_CAPI ... U_EXPORT2 added by Peter Kirk 17 Nov 2001 */
u_vsnprintf(UChar       *buffer,
            int32_t         count,
            const char     *locale,
            const char     *patternSpecification,
            va_list         ap)
{
    int32_t written;
    UChar *pattern;

    /* convert from the default codepage to Unicode */
    pattern = ufmt_defaultCPToUnicode(patternSpecification,
        strlen(patternSpecification));
    if(pattern == 0) {
        return 0;
    }

    /* do the work */
    written = u_vsnprintf_u(buffer, count, locale, pattern, ap);

    /* clean up */
    uprv_free(pattern);

    return written;
}

U_CAPI int32_t U_EXPORT2 
u_vsprintf_u(UChar       *buffer, 
             const char  *locale, 
             const UChar *patternSpecification, 
             va_list     ap) 
{ 
    return u_vsnprintf_u(buffer, INT32_MAX, locale, patternSpecification, ap); 
} 


static UChar *
u_strset(UChar *str, int32_t count, UChar c) {
    int32_t idx;
    for(idx = 0; idx < count; ++idx) {
        str[idx] = c;
    }
    return str;
}

/* copies the minimum number of code units of (count or output->available) */
static int32_t
u_minstrncpy(u_localized_string *output, const UChar *str, int32_t count) {
    int32_t size = ufmt_min(count, output->available);

    u_strncpy(output->str + (output->len - output->available), str, size);
    output->available -= size;
    return size;
}

static int32_t
u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info    *info,
                          const UChar                 *result,
                          int32_t                     resultLen)
{
    int32_t written = 0;

    resultLen = ufmt_min(resultLen, output->available);

    /* pad and justify, if needed */
    if(info->fWidth != -1 && resultLen < info->fWidth) {
        int32_t paddingLeft = info->fWidth - resultLen;
        int32_t outputPos = output->len - output->available;
  
        if (paddingLeft + resultLen > output->available) {
            paddingLeft = output->available - resultLen;
            if (paddingLeft < 0) {
                paddingLeft = 0;
            }
            /* paddingLeft = output->available - resultLen;*/
        }
        written += paddingLeft;

        /* left justify */
        if(info->fLeft) {
            written += u_minstrncpy(output, result, resultLen);
            u_strset(&output->str[outputPos + resultLen], paddingLeft, info->fPadChar);
            output->available -= paddingLeft;
        }
        /* right justify */
        else {
            u_strset(&output->str[outputPos], paddingLeft, info->fPadChar);
            output->available -= paddingLeft;
            written += u_minstrncpy(output, result, resultLen);
        }
    }
    /* just write the formatted output */
    else {
        written = u_minstrncpy(output, result, resultLen);
    }

    return written;
}

/* Sets the sign of a format based on u_sprintf_spec_info */
/* TODO: Is setting the prefix symbol to a positive sign a good idea in all locales? */
static void
u_sprintf_set_sign(UNumberFormat        *format,
                   const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                   UErrorCode *status)
{
    if(info->fShowSign) {
        if (info->fSpace) {
            /* Setting UNUM_PLUS_SIGN_SYMBOL affects the exponent too. */
            /* unum_setSymbol(format, UNUM_PLUS_SIGN_SYMBOL, gSpaceStr, 1, &status); */
            unum_setTextAttribute(format, UNUM_POSITIVE_PREFIX, gSpaceStr, 1, status);
        }
        else {
            UChar plusSymbol[USPRINTF_SYMBOL_BUFFER_SIZE];
            int32_t symbolLen;

            symbolLen = unum_getSymbol(format,
                UNUM_PLUS_SIGN_SYMBOL,
                plusSymbol,
                sizeof(plusSymbol)/sizeof(*plusSymbol),
                status);
            unum_setTextAttribute(format,
                UNUM_POSITIVE_PREFIX,
                plusSymbol,
                symbolLen,
                status);
        }
    }
}

/* handle a '%' */

int32_t
u_sprintf_simple_percent_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                                 const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                                 const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    /* put a single '%' on the stream */
    if (output->available >= 1) {
        output->str[output->len - output->available--] = 0x0025;
        /* we wrote one character */
        return 1;
    }
    return 0;
}

/* handle 's' */

int32_t
u_sprintf_string_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                         const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                         const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    UChar *s;
    int32_t len, written;
    const char *arg = (const char*)(args[0].ptrValue);

    /* convert from the default codepage to Unicode */
    if (arg)
        s = ufmt_defaultCPToUnicode(arg, strlen(arg));
    else {
        s = gNullStr;
    }
    if(s == 0) {
        return 0;
    }
    len = u_strlen(s);

    /* width = minimum # of characters to write */
    /* precision = maximum # of characters to write */

    /* precision takes precedence over width */
    /* determine if the string should be truncated */
    if(info->fPrecision != -1 && len > info->fPrecision) {
        written = u_minstrncpy(output, s, info->fPrecision);
    }
    /* determine if the string should be padded */
    else {
        written = u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, s, len);
    }

    /* clean up */
    if (gNullStr != s) {
        uprv_free(s);
    }

    return written;
}

/* HSYS */
int32_t
u_sprintf_integer_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                          const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    long            num         = (long) (args[0].intValue);
    UNumberFormat        *format;
    UChar            result        [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t        minDigits     = -1;
    UErrorCode        status        = U_ZERO_ERROR;


    /* mask off any necessary bits */
    if(info->fIsShort)
        num &= UINT16_MAX;
    else if(! info->fIsLong || ! info->fIsLongLong)
        num &= UINT32_MAX;

    /* get the formatter */
    format = u_locbund_getNumberFormat(output->fBundle);

    /* handle error */
    if(format == 0)
        return 0;

    /* set the appropriate flags on the formatter */

    /* set the minimum integer digits */
    if(info->fPrecision != -1) {
        /* clone the stream's bundle if it isn't owned */
        if(! output->fOwnBundle) {
            output->fBundle     = u_locbund_clone(output->fBundle);
            output->fOwnBundle = TRUE;
            format           = u_locbund_getNumberFormat(output->fBundle);
        }

        /* set the minimum # of digits */
        minDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_INTEGER_DIGITS);
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_INTEGER_DIGITS, info->fPrecision);
    }

    /* set whether to show the sign */
    if(info->fShowSign) {
        /* clone the stream's bundle if it isn't owned */
        if(! output->fOwnBundle) {
            output->fBundle     = u_locbund_clone(output->fBundle);
            output->fOwnBundle = TRUE;
            format           = u_locbund_getNumberFormat(output->fBundle);
        }

        u_sprintf_set_sign(format, info, &status);
    }

    /* format the number */
    unum_format(format, num, result, USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE, 0, &status);

    /* restore the number format */
    if(minDigits != -1) {
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_INTEGER_DIGITS, minDigits);
    }

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, u_strlen(result));
}

int32_t
u_sprintf_hex_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                      const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                      const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    long            num         = (long) (args[0].intValue);
    UChar            result         [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t         len        = USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE;


    /* mask off any necessary bits */
    if(info->fIsShort)
        num &= UINT16_MAX;
    else if(! info->fIsLong || ! info->fIsLongLong)
        num &= UINT32_MAX;

    /* format the number, preserving the minimum # of digits */
    ufmt_ltou(result, &len, num, 16,
        (UBool)(info->fSpec == 0x0078),
        (info->fPrecision == -1 && info->fZero) ? info->fWidth : info->fPrecision);

    /* convert to alt form, if desired */
    if(num != 0 && info->fAlt && len < USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE - 2) {
        /* shift the formatted string right by 2 chars */
        memmove(result + 2, result, len * sizeof(UChar));
        result[0] = 0x0030;
        result[1] = info->fSpec;
        len += 2;
    }

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, len);
}

int32_t
u_sprintf_octal_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                        const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                        const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    long            num         = (long) (args[0].intValue);
    UChar            result         [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t         len        = USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE;


    /* mask off any necessary bits */
    if(info->fIsShort)
        num &= UINT16_MAX;
    else if(! info->fIsLong || ! info->fIsLongLong)
        num &= UINT32_MAX;

    /* format the number, preserving the minimum # of digits */
    ufmt_ltou(result, &len, num, 8,
        FALSE, /* doesn't matter for octal */
        info->fPrecision == -1 && info->fZero ? info->fWidth : info->fPrecision);

    /* convert to alt form, if desired */
    if(info->fAlt && result[0] != 0x0030 && len < USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE - 1) {
        /* shift the formatted string right by 1 char */
        memmove(result + 1, result, len * sizeof(UChar));
        result[0] = 0x0030;
        len += 1;
    }

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, len);
}


int32_t
u_sprintf_uinteger_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                           const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                           const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    u_sprintf_spec_info uint_info;
    ufmt_args uint_args;

    memcpy(&uint_info, info, sizeof(u_sprintf_spec_info));
    memcpy(&uint_args, args, sizeof(ufmt_args));

    uint_info.fPrecision = 0;
    uint_info.fAlt  = FALSE;

    /* Get around int32_t limitations */
    uint_args.doubleValue = ((double) ((uint32_t) (uint_args.intValue)));

    return u_sprintf_double_handler(output, &uint_info, &uint_args);
}

int32_t
u_sprintf_double_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                         const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                         const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    double        num         = (double) (args[0].doubleValue);
    UNumberFormat        *format;
    UChar            result        [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t        minDecimalDigits;
    int32_t        maxDecimalDigits;
    UErrorCode        status        = U_ZERO_ERROR;

    /* mask off any necessary bits */
    /*  if(! info->fIsLongDouble)
    num &= DBL_MAX;*/

    /* get the formatter */
    format = u_locbund_getNumberFormat(output->fBundle);

    /* handle error */
    if(format == 0)
        return 0;

    /* set the appropriate flags on the formatter */

    /* clone the stream's bundle if it isn't owned */
    if(! output->fOwnBundle) {
        output->fBundle    = u_locbund_clone(output->fBundle);
        output->fOwnBundle = TRUE;
        format           = u_locbund_getNumberFormat(output->fBundle);
    }

    /* set the number of decimal digits */

    /* save the formatter's state */
    minDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS);
    maxDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS);

    if(info->fPrecision != -1) {
        /* set the # of decimal digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, info->fPrecision);
    }
    else if(info->fPrecision == 0 && ! info->fAlt) {
        /* no decimal point in this case */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 0);
    }
    else if(info->fAlt) {
        /* '#' means always show decimal point */
        /* copy of printf behavior on Solaris - '#' shows 6 digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }
    else {
        /* # of decimal digits is 6 if precision not specified regardless of locale */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }

    /* set whether to show the sign */
    u_sprintf_set_sign(format, info, &status);

    /* format the number */
    unum_formatDouble(format, num, result, USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE, 0, &status);

    /* restore the number format */
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS, minDecimalDigits);
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS, maxDecimalDigits);

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, u_strlen(result));
}


int32_t
u_sprintf_char_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                       const u_sprintf_spec_info         *info,
                       const ufmt_args              *args)
{
    UChar *s;
    int32_t len, written;
    unsigned char arg = (unsigned char)(args[0].intValue);

    /* convert from default codepage to Unicode */
    s = ufmt_defaultCPToUnicode((const char *)&arg, 1);
    if(s == 0) {
        return 0;
    }

    /* Remember that this may be a surrogate pair */
    len = u_strlen(s);

    /* width = minimum # of characters to write */
    /* precision = maximum # of characters to write */

    /* precision takes precedence over width */
    /* determine if the string should be truncated */
    if(info->fPrecision != -1 && len > info->fPrecision) {
        written = u_minstrncpy(output, s, info->fPrecision);
    }
    else {
        /* determine if the string should be padded */
        written = u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, s, len);
    }

    /* clean up */
    uprv_free(s);

    return written;
}


int32_t
u_sprintf_pointer_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                          const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    long            num         = (long) (args[0].intValue);
    UChar            result         [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t         len        = USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE;


    /* format the pointer in hex */
    ufmt_ltou(result, &len, num, 16, TRUE, info->fPrecision);

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, len);
}

int32_t
u_sprintf_scientific_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                             const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                             const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    double        num         = (double) (args[0].doubleValue);
    UNumberFormat        *format;
    UChar            result        [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t        minDecimalDigits;
    int32_t        maxDecimalDigits;
    UErrorCode        status        = U_ZERO_ERROR;
    UChar srcExpBuf[USPRINTF_SYMBOL_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t srcLen, expLen;
    UChar expBuf[USPRINTF_SYMBOL_BUFFER_SIZE];


    /* mask off any necessary bits */
    /*  if(! info->fIsLongDouble)
    num &= DBL_MAX;*/

    /* get the formatter */
    format = u_locbund_getScientificFormat(output->fBundle);

    /* handle error */
    if(format == 0)
        return 0;

    /* set the appropriate flags on the formatter */

    /* clone the stream's bundle if it isn't owned */
    if(! output->fOwnBundle) {
        output->fBundle    = u_locbund_clone(output->fBundle);
        output->fOwnBundle = TRUE;
        format           = u_locbund_getScientificFormat(output->fBundle);
    }

    srcLen = unum_getSymbol(format,
        UNUM_EXPONENTIAL_SYMBOL,
        srcExpBuf,
        sizeof(srcExpBuf),
        &status);

    /* Upper/lower case the e */
    if (info->fSpec == (UChar)0x65 /* e */) {
        expLen = u_strToLower(expBuf, (int32_t)sizeof(expBuf),
            srcExpBuf, srcLen,
            output->fBundle->fLocale,
            &status);
    }
    else {
        expLen = u_strToUpper(expBuf, (int32_t)sizeof(expBuf),
            srcExpBuf, srcLen,
            output->fBundle->fLocale,
            &status);
    }

    unum_setSymbol(format,
        UNUM_EXPONENTIAL_SYMBOL,
        expBuf,
        expLen,
        &status);

    /* set the number of decimal digits */

    /* save the formatter's state */
    minDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS);
    maxDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS);

    if(info->fPrecision != -1) {
        /* set the # of decimal digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, info->fPrecision);
    }
    else if(info->fPrecision == 0 && ! info->fAlt) {
        /* no decimal point in this case */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 0);
    }
    else if(info->fAlt) {
        /* '#' means always show decimal point */
        /* copy of printf behavior on Solaris - '#' shows 6 digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }
    else {
        /* # of decimal digits is 6 if precision not specified */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }

    /* set whether to show the sign */
    u_sprintf_set_sign(format, info, &status);

    /* format the number */
    unum_formatDouble(format, num, result, USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE, 0, &status);

    /* restore the number format */
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS, minDecimalDigits);
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS, maxDecimalDigits);

    unum_setSymbol(format,
        UNUM_EXPONENTIAL_SYMBOL,
        srcExpBuf,
        srcLen,
        &status);

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, u_strlen(result));
}

int32_t
u_sprintf_date_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                       const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                       const ufmt_args         *args)
{
    UDate            num         = (UDate) (args[0].dateValue);
    UDateFormat        *format;
    UChar            result        [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    UErrorCode        status        = U_ZERO_ERROR;


    /* get the formatter */
    format = u_locbund_getDateFormat(output->fBundle);

    /* handle error */
    if(format == 0)
        return 0;

    /* format the date */
    udat_format(format, num, result, USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE, 0, &status);

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, u_strlen(result));
}

int32_t
u_sprintf_time_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                       const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                       const ufmt_args         *args)
{
    UDate            num         = (UDate) (args[0].dateValue);
    UDateFormat        *format;
    UChar            result        [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    UErrorCode        status        = U_ZERO_ERROR;


    /* get the formatter */
    format = u_locbund_getTimeFormat(output->fBundle);

    /* handle error */
    if(format == 0)
        return 0;

    /* format the time */
    udat_format(format, num, result, USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE, 0, &status);

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, u_strlen(result));
}


int32_t
u_sprintf_percent_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                          const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    double        num         = (double) (args[0].doubleValue);
    UNumberFormat        *format;
    UChar            result        [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t        minDecimalDigits;
    int32_t        maxDecimalDigits;
    UErrorCode        status        = U_ZERO_ERROR;


    /* mask off any necessary bits */
    /*  if(! info->fIsLongDouble)
    num &= DBL_MAX;*/

    /* get the formatter */
    format = u_locbund_getPercentFormat(output->fBundle);

    /* handle error */
    if(format == 0)
        return 0;

    /* set the appropriate flags on the formatter */

    /* clone the stream's bundle if it isn't owned */
    if(! output->fOwnBundle) {
        output->fBundle     = u_locbund_clone(output->fBundle);
        output->fOwnBundle     = TRUE;
        format           = u_locbund_getPercentFormat(output->fBundle);
    }

    /* set the number of decimal digits */

    /* save the formatter's state */
    minDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS);
    maxDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS);

    if(info->fPrecision != -1) {
        /* set the # of decimal digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, info->fPrecision);
    }
    else if(info->fPrecision == 0 && ! info->fAlt) {
        /* no decimal point in this case */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 0);
    }
    else if(info->fAlt) {
        /* '#' means always show decimal point */
        /* copy of printf behavior on Solaris - '#' shows 6 digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }
    else {
        /* # of decimal digits is 6 if precision not specified */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }

    /* set whether to show the sign */
    u_sprintf_set_sign(format, info, &status);

    /* format the number */
    unum_formatDouble(format, num, result, USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE, 0, &status);

    /* restore the number format */
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS, minDecimalDigits);
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS, maxDecimalDigits);

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, u_strlen(result));
}


int32_t
u_sprintf_currency_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                           const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                           const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    double        num         = (double) (args[0].doubleValue);
    UNumberFormat        *format;
    UChar            result        [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t        minDecimalDigits;
    int32_t        maxDecimalDigits;
    UErrorCode        status        = U_ZERO_ERROR;


    /* mask off any necessary bits */
    /*  if(! info->fIsLongDouble)
    num &= DBL_MAX;*/

    /* get the formatter */
    format = u_locbund_getCurrencyFormat(output->fBundle);

    /* handle error */
    if(format == 0)
        return 0;

    /* set the appropriate flags on the formatter */

    /* clone the stream's bundle if it isn't owned */
    if(! output->fOwnBundle) {
        output->fBundle     = u_locbund_clone(output->fBundle);
        output->fOwnBundle     = TRUE;
        format           = u_locbund_getCurrencyFormat(output->fBundle);
    }

    /* set the number of decimal digits */

    /* save the formatter's state */
    minDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS);
    maxDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS);

    if(info->fPrecision != -1) {
        /* set the # of decimal digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, info->fPrecision);
    }
    else if(info->fPrecision == 0 && ! info->fAlt) {
        /* no decimal point in this case */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 0);
    }
    else if(info->fAlt) {
        /* '#' means always show decimal point */
        /* copy of printf behavior on Solaris - '#' shows 6 digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }
    else {
        /* # of decimal digits is 6 if precision not specified */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }

    /* set whether to show the sign */
    u_sprintf_set_sign(format, info, &status);

    /* format the number */
    unum_formatDouble(format, num, result, USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE, 0, &status);

    /* restore the number format */
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS, minDecimalDigits);
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS, maxDecimalDigits);

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, u_strlen(result));
}

int32_t
u_sprintf_ustring_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                          const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                          const ufmt_args         *args)
{
    int32_t len, written;
    const UChar *arg = (const UChar*)(args[0].ptrValue);

    /* allocate enough space for the buffer */
    if (!arg) {
        arg = gNullStr;
    }
    len = u_strlen(arg);

    /* width = minimum # of characters to write */
    /* precision = maximum # of characters to write */

    /* precision takes precedence over width */
    /* determine if the string should be truncated */
    if(info->fPrecision != -1 && len > info->fPrecision) {
        written = u_minstrncpy(output, arg, info->fPrecision);
    }
    else {
        /* determine if the string should be padded */
        written = u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, arg, len);
    }

    return written;
}



int32_t
u_sprintf_uchar_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                        const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                        const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    int32_t written = 0;
    UChar arg = (UChar)(args[0].intValue);


    /* width = minimum # of characters to write */
    /* precision = maximum # of characters to write */

    /* precision takes precedence over width */
    /* determine if the char should be printed */
    if(info->fPrecision != -1 && info->fPrecision < 1) {
        /* write nothing */
        written = 0;
    }
    else {
        /* determine if the string should be padded */
        written = u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, &arg, 1);
    }

    return written;
}

int32_t
u_sprintf_scidbl_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                         const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                         const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    u_sprintf_spec_info scidbl_info;
    double      num = args[0].doubleValue;

    memcpy(&scidbl_info, info, sizeof(u_sprintf_spec_info));

    /* determine whether to use 'd', 'e' or 'f' notation */
    if (scidbl_info.fPrecision == -1 && num == uprv_trunc(num))
    {
        /* use 'f' notation */
        scidbl_info.fSpec = 0x0066;
        scidbl_info.fPrecision = 0;
        /* call the double handler */
        return u_sprintf_double_handler(output, &scidbl_info, args);
    }
    else if(num < 0.0001
        || (scidbl_info.fPrecision != -1 && num > uprv_pow10(scidbl_info.fPrecision)))
    {
        /* use 'e' or 'E' notation */
        scidbl_info.fSpec = scidbl_info.fSpec - 1;
        /* call the scientific handler */
        return u_sprintf_scientific_handler(output, &scidbl_info, args);
    }
    else {
        /* use 'f' notation */
        scidbl_info.fSpec = 0x0066;
        /* call the double handler */
        return u_sprintf_double_handler(output, &scidbl_info, args);
    }
}


int32_t
u_sprintf_count_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                        const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                        const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    int *count = (int*)(args[0].ptrValue);

    /* in the special case of count, the u_printf_spec_info's width */
    /* will contain the # of chars written thus far */
    *count = info->fWidth;

    return 0;
}


int32_t
u_sprintf_spellout_handler(u_localized_string *output,
                           const u_sprintf_spec_info     *info,
                           const ufmt_args            *args)
{
    double        num         = (double) (args[0].doubleValue);
    UNumberFormat        *format;
    UChar            result        [USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE];
    int32_t        minDecimalDigits;
    int32_t        maxDecimalDigits;
    UErrorCode        status        = U_ZERO_ERROR;


    /* mask off any necessary bits */
    /*  if(! info->fIsLongDouble)
    num &= DBL_MAX;*/

    /* get the formatter */
    format = u_locbund_getSpelloutFormat(output->fBundle);

    /* handle error */
    if(format == 0)
        return 0;

    /* set the appropriate flags on the formatter */

    /* clone the stream's bundle if it isn't owned */
    if(! output->fOwnBundle) {
        output->fBundle    = u_locbund_clone(output->fBundle);
        output->fOwnBundle = TRUE;
        format           = u_locbund_getSpelloutFormat(output->fBundle);
    }

    /* set the number of decimal digits */

    /* save the formatter's state */
    minDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS);
    maxDecimalDigits = unum_getAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS);

    if(info->fPrecision != -1) {
        /* set the # of decimal digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, info->fPrecision);
    }
    else if(info->fPrecision == 0 && ! info->fAlt) {
        /* no decimal point in this case */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 0);
    }
    else if(info->fAlt) {
        /* '#' means always show decimal point */
        /* copy of printf behavior on Solaris - '#' shows 6 digits */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }
    else {
        /* # of decimal digits is 6 if precision not specified */
        unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_FRACTION_DIGITS, 6);
    }

    /* set whether to show the sign */
    u_sprintf_set_sign(format, info, &status);

    /* format the number */
    unum_formatDouble(format, num, result, USPRINTF_BUFFER_SIZE, 0, &status);

    /* restore the number format */
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MIN_FRACTION_DIGITS, minDecimalDigits);
    unum_setAttribute(format, UNUM_MAX_FRACTION_DIGITS, maxDecimalDigits);

    return u_sprintf_pad_and_justify(output, info, result, u_strlen(result));
}

#define UP_PERCENT 0x0025

U_CAPI int32_t  U_EXPORT2 /* U_CAPI ... U_EXPORT2 added by Peter Kirk 17 Nov 2001 */
u_vsnprintf_u(UChar    *buffer,
              int32_t        count,
              const char     *locale,
              const UChar    *patternSpecification,
              va_list        ap)
{
    const UChar       *alias = patternSpecification;
    const UChar       *lastAlias;
    int32_t           patCount;
    int32_t           written = 0;
    uint16_t          handlerNum;

    ufmt_args         args;
    u_localized_string outStr;
    u_sprintf_spec    spec;
    ufmt_type_info    info;
    u_sprintf_handler handler;

    if (count < 0) {
        count = INT32_MAX;
    }

    outStr.str = buffer;
    outStr.len = count;
    outStr.available = count;

    /* if locale is 0, use the default */
    if(locale == 0) {
        locale = uloc_getDefault();
    }
    outStr.fBundle = u_loccache_get(locale);

    if(outStr.fBundle == 0) {
        return 0;
    }
    outStr.fOwnBundle     = FALSE;

    /* iterate through the pattern */
    while(outStr.available > 0) {

        /* find the next '%' */
        lastAlias = alias;
        while(*alias != UP_PERCENT && *alias != 0x0000) {
            alias++;
        }

        /* write any characters before the '%' */
        if(alias > lastAlias) {
            written += u_minstrncpy(&outStr, lastAlias, (int32_t)(alias - lastAlias));
        }

        /* break if at end of string */
        if(*alias == 0x0000) {
            break;
        }

        /* parse the specifier */
        patCount = u_sprintf_parse_spec(alias, &spec);

        /* fill in the precision and width, if specified out of line */

        /* width specified out of line */
        if(spec.fInfo.fWidth == -2) {
            if(spec.fWidthPos == -1) {
                /* read the width from the argument list */
                spec.fInfo.fWidth = va_arg(ap, int);
            }
            else {
                /* handle positional parameter */
            }

            /* if it's negative, take the absolute value and set left alignment */
            if(spec.fInfo.fWidth < 0) {
                spec.fInfo.fWidth     *= -1;
                spec.fInfo.fLeft     = TRUE;
            }
        }

        /* precision specified out of line */
        if(spec.fInfo.fPrecision == -2) {
            if(spec.fPrecisionPos == -1) {
                /* read the precision from the argument list */
                spec.fInfo.fPrecision = va_arg(ap, int);
            }
            else {
                /* handle positional parameter */
            }

            /* if it's negative, set it to zero */
            if(spec.fInfo.fPrecision < 0)
                spec.fInfo.fPrecision = 0;
        }

        handlerNum = (uint16_t)(spec.fInfo.fSpec - USPRINTF_BASE_FMT_HANDLERS);
        if (handlerNum < USPRINTF_NUM_FMT_HANDLERS) {
            /* query the info function for argument information */
            info = g_u_sprintf_infos[ handlerNum ].info;
            if(info > ufmt_simple_percent) {
                switch(info) {
                case ufmt_count:
                    /* set the spec's width to the # of chars written */
                    spec.fInfo.fWidth = written;
                case ufmt_char:
                case ufmt_uchar:
                case ufmt_int:
                    args.intValue = va_arg(ap, int);
                    break;
                case ufmt_wchar:
                    args.wcharValue = va_arg(ap, wchar_t);
                    break;
                case ufmt_string:
                    args.ptrValue = va_arg(ap, char*);
                    break;
                case ufmt_wstring:
                    args.ptrValue = va_arg(ap, wchar_t*);
                    break;
                case ufmt_ustring:
                    args.ptrValue = va_arg(ap, UChar*);
                    break;
                case ufmt_pointer:
                    args.ptrValue = va_arg(ap, void*);
                    break;
                case ufmt_float:
                    args.floatValue = (float) va_arg(ap, double);
                    break;
                case ufmt_double:
                    args.doubleValue = va_arg(ap, double);
                    break;
                case ufmt_date:
                    args.dateValue = va_arg(ap, UDate);
                    break;
                default:
                    break;  /* Should never get here */
                }
            }

            /* call the handler function */
            handler = g_u_sprintf_infos[ handlerNum ].handler;
            if(handler != 0) {
                written += (*handler)(&outStr, &spec.fInfo, &args);
            }
            else {
                /* just echo unknown tags */
                written += u_minstrncpy(&outStr, lastAlias, (int32_t)(alias - lastAlias));
            }
        }
        else {
            /* just echo unknown tags */
            written += u_minstrncpy(&outStr, lastAlias, (int32_t)(alias - lastAlias));
        }

        /* update the pointer in pattern and continue */
        alias += patCount;
    }

    /* Terminate the buffer, if there's room. */
    if (outStr.available > 0) {
        buffer[outStr.len - outStr.available] = 0x0000;
    }

    /* Release the cloned bundle, if we cloned it. */
    if(outStr.fOwnBundle) {
        u_locbund_delete(outStr.fBundle);
        outStr.fBundle = NULL;
        outStr.fOwnBundle = FALSE;
    }

    /* return # of UChars written */
    return written;
}


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