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chariter.h

/*
********************************************************************
*
*   Copyright (C) 1997-2001, International Business Machines
*   Corporation and others.  All Rights Reserved.
*
********************************************************************
*/

#ifndef CHARITER_H
#define CHARITER_H

#include "unicode/utypes.h"
#include "unicode/unistr.h"

U_NAMESPACE_BEGIN
/**
 * Abstract class that defines an API for forward-only iteration
 * on text objects.
 * This is a minimal interface for iteration without random access
 * or backwards iteration. It is especially useful for wrapping
 * streams with converters into an object for collation or
 * normalization.
 *
 * <p>Characters can be accessed in two ways: as code units or as
 * code points.
 * Unicode code points are 21-bit integers and are the scalar values
 * of Unicode characters. ICU uses the type UChar32 for them.
 * Unicode code units are the storage units of a given
 * Unicode/UCS Transformation Format (a character encoding scheme).
 * With UTF-16, all code points can be represented with either one
 * or two code units ("surrogates").
 * String storage is typically based on code units, while properties
 * of characters are typically determined using code point values.
 * Some processes may be designed to work with sequences of code units,
 * or it may be known that all characters that are important to an
 * algorithm can be represented with single code units.
 * Other processes will need to use the code point access functions.</p>
 *
 * <p>ForwardCharacterIterator provides nextPostInc() to access
 * a code unit and advance an internal position into the text object,
 * similar to a <code>return text[position++]</code>.<br>
 * It provides next32PostInc() to access a code point and advance an internal
 * position.</p>
 *
 * <p>next32PostInc() assumes that the current position is that of
 * the beginning of a code point, i.e., of its first code unit.
 * After next32PostInc(), this will be true again.
 * In general, access to code units and code points in the same
 * iteration loop should not be mixed. In UTF-16, if the current position
 * is on a second code unit (Low Surrogate), then only that code unit
 * is returned even by next32PostInc().</p>
 *
 * <p>For iteration with either function, there are two ways to
 * check for the end of the iteration. When there are no more
 * characters in the text object:
 * <ul>
 * <li>The hasNext() function returns FALSE.</li>
 * <li>nextPostInc() and next32PostInc() return DONE
 *     when one attempts to read beyond the end of the text object.</li>
 * </ul>
 *
 * Example:
 * \code 
 * void function1(ForwardCharacterIterator &it) {
 *     UChar32 c;
 *     while(it.hasNext()) {
 *         c=it.next32PostInc();
 *         // use c
 *     }
 * }
 *
 * void function1(ForwardCharacterIterator &it) {
 *     UChar c;
 *     while((c=it.nextPostInc())!=ForwardCharacterIterator::DONE) {
 *         // use c
 *      }
 *  }
 * \endcode
 * </p>
 *
 * @stable
 */
00084 class U_COMMON_API ForwardCharacterIterator {
public:
  /**
   * Value returned by most of ForwardCharacterIterator's functions
   * when the iterator has reached the limits of its iteration.
   * @stable
   */
  enum { DONE = 0xffff };

  /**
   * Destructor.  
   * @stable
   */
00097   virtual ~ForwardCharacterIterator() {}

  /**
   * Returns true when both iterators refer to the same
   * character in the same character-storage object.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UBool operator==(const ForwardCharacterIterator& that) const = 0;
        
  /**
   * Returns true when the iterators refer to different
   * text-storage objects, or to different characters in the
   * same text-storage object.  
   * @stable
   */
  inline UBool operator!=(const ForwardCharacterIterator& that) const;

  /**
   * Generates a hash code for this iterator.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual int32_t hashCode(void) const = 0;
        
  /**
   * Returns a UClassID for this ForwardCharacterIterator ("poor man's
   * RTTI").<P> Despite the fact that this function is public,
   * DO NOT CONSIDER IT PART OF CHARACTERITERATOR'S API!  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UClassID getDynamicClassID(void) const = 0;

  /**
   * Gets the current code unit for returning and advances to the next code unit
   * in the iteration range
   * (toward endIndex()).  If there are
   * no more code units to return, returns DONE.
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar         nextPostInc(void) = 0;
        
  /**
   * Gets the current code point for returning and advances to the next code point
   * in the iteration range
   * (toward endIndex()).  If there are
   * no more code points to return, returns DONE.
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar32       next32PostInc(void) = 0;
        
  /**
   * Returns FALSE if there are no more code units or code points
   * at or after the current position in the iteration range.
   * This is used with nextPostInc() or next32PostInc() in forward
   * iteration.
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UBool        hasNext() = 0;

protected:
  ForwardCharacterIterator() {}
  ForwardCharacterIterator(const ForwardCharacterIterator&) {}
  ForwardCharacterIterator &operator=(const ForwardCharacterIterator&) { return *this; }
};

/**
 * Abstract class that defines an API for iteration
 * on text objects.
 * This is an interface for forward and backward iteration
 * and random access into a text object.
 *
 * <p>The API provides backward compatibility to the Java and older ICU
 * CharacterIterator classes but extends them significantly:
 * <ol>
 * <li>CharacterIterator is now a subclass of ForwardCharacterIterator.</li>
 * <li>While the old API functions provided forward iteration with
 *     "pre-increment" semantics, the new one also provides functions
 *     with "post-increment" semantics. They are more efficient and should
 *     be the preferred iterator functions for new implementations.
 *     The backward iteration always had "pre-decrement" semantics, which
 *     are efficient.</li>
 * <li>Just like ForwardCharacterIterator, it provides access to
 *     both code units and code points. Code point access versions are available
 *     for the old and the new iteration semantics.</li>
 * <li>There are new functions for setting and moving the current position
 *     without returning a character, for efficiency.</li>
 * <ol>
 *
 * See ForwardCharacterIterator for examples for using the new forward iteration
 * functions. For backward iteration, there is also a hasPrevious() function
 * that can be used analogously to hasNext().
 * The old functions work as before and are shown below.</p>
 *
 * <p>Examples for some of the new functions:</p>
 *
 * Forward iteration with hasNext():
 * \code
 * void forward1(CharacterIterator &it) {
 *     UChar32 c;
 *     for(it.setToStart(); it.hasNext();) {
 *         c=it.next32PostInc();
 *         // use c
 *     }
 *  }
 * \endcode
 * Forward iteration more similar to loops with the old forward iteration,
 * showing a way to convert simple for() loops:
 * \code
 * void forward2(CharacterIterator &it) {
 *     UChar c;
 *     for(c=it.firstPostInc(); c!=CharacterIterator::DONE; c=it.nextPostInc()) {
 *          // use c
 *      }
 * }
 * \endcode
 * Backward iteration with setToEnd() and hasPrevious():
 * \code
 *  void backward1(CharacterIterator &it) {
 *      UChar32 c;
 *      for(it.setToEnd(); it.hasPrevious();) {
 *         c=it.previous32();
 *          // use c
 *      }
 *  }
 * \endcode
 * Backward iteration with a more traditional for() loop:
 * \code
 * void backward2(CharacterIterator &it) {
 *     UChar c;
 *     for(c=it.last(); c!=CharacterIterator::DONE; c=it.previous()) {
 *         // use c
 *      }
 *  }
 * \endcode
 *
 * Example for random access:
 * \code
 *  void random(CharacterIterator &it) {
 *      // set to the third code point from the beginning
 *      it.move32(3, CharacterIterator::kStart);
 *      // get a code point from here without moving the position
 *      UChar32 c=it.current32();
 *      // get the position
 *      int32_t pos=it.getIndex();
 *      // get the previous code unit
 *      UChar u=it.previous();
 *      // move back one more code unit
 *      it.move(-1, CharacterIterator::kCurrent);
 *      // set the position back to where it was
 *      // and read the same code point c and move beyond it
 *      it.setIndex(pos);
 *      if(c!=it.next32PostInc()) {
 *          exit(1); // CharacterIterator inconsistent
 *      }
 *  }
 * \endcode
 *
 * <p>Examples, especially for the old API:</p>
 *
 * Function processing characters, in this example simple output
 * <pre>
 * \code
 *  void processChar( UChar c )
 *  {
 *      cout << " " << c;
 *  }
 * \endcode
 * </pre>
 * Traverse the text from start to finish
 * <pre> 
 * \code
 *  void traverseForward(CharacterIterator& iter)
 *  {
 *      for(UChar c = iter.first(); c != CharacterIterator.DONE; c = iter.next()) {
 *          processChar(c);
 *      }
 *  }
 * \endcode
 * </pre>
 * Traverse the text backwards, from end to start
 * <pre>
 * \code
 *  void traverseBackward(CharacterIterator& iter)
 *  {
 *      for(UChar c = iter.last(); c != CharacterIterator.DONE; c = iter.previous()) {
 *          processChar(c);
 *      }
 *  }
 * \endcode
 * </pre>
 * Traverse both forward and backward from a given position in the text. 
 * Calls to notBoundary() in this example represents some additional stopping criteria.
 * <pre>
 * \code
 * void traverseOut(CharacterIterator& iter, int32_t pos)
 * {
 *      UChar c;
 *      for (c = iter.setIndex(pos);
 *      c != CharacterIterator.DONE && (Unicode::isLetter(c) || Unicode::isDigit(c));
 *          c = iter.next()) {}
 *      int32_t end = iter.getIndex();
 *      for (c = iter.setIndex(pos);
 *          c != CharacterIterator.DONE && (Unicode::isLetter(c) || Unicode::isDigit(c));
 *          c = iter.previous()) {}
 *      int32_t start = iter.getIndex() + 1;
 *  
 *      cout << "start: " << start << " end: " << end << endl;
 *      for (c = iter.setIndex(start); iter.getIndex() < end; c = iter.next() ) {
 *          processChar(c);
 *     }
 *  }
 * \endcode
 * </pre>
 * Creating a StringCharacterIterator and calling the test functions
 * <pre>
 * \code
 *  void CharacterIterator_Example( void )
 *   {
 *       cout << endl << "===== CharacterIterator_Example: =====" << endl;
 *       UnicodeString text("Ein kleiner Satz.");
 *       StringCharacterIterator iterator(text);
 *       cout << "----- traverseForward: -----------" << endl;
 *       traverseForward( iterator );
 *       cout << endl << endl << "----- traverseBackward: ----------" << endl;
 *       traverseBackward( iterator );
 *       cout << endl << endl << "----- traverseOut: ---------------" << endl;
 *       traverseOut( iterator, 7 );
 *       cout << endl << endl << "-----" << endl;
 *   }
 * \endcode
 * </pre>
 *
 * @stable
 */
00330 class U_COMMON_API CharacterIterator : public ForwardCharacterIterator {
public:
  /**
   * Origin enumeration for the move() and move32() functions.
   * @stable
   */
00336   enum EOrigin { kStart, kCurrent, kEnd };

  /**
   * Returns a pointer to a new CharacterIterator of the same
   * concrete class as this one, and referring to the same
   * character in the same text-storage object as this one.  The
   * caller is responsible for deleting the new clone.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual CharacterIterator* clone(void) const = 0;

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit in its
   * iteration range, and returns that code unit.
   * This can be used to begin an iteration with next().
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar         first(void) = 0;

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit in its
   * iteration range, returns that code unit, and moves the position
   * to the second code unit. This is an alternative to setToStart()
   * for forward iteration with nextPostInc().
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar         firstPostInc(void);

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the first code point in its
   * iteration range, and returns that code unit,
   * This can be used to begin an iteration with next32().
   * Note that an iteration with next32PostInc(), beginning with,
   * e.g., setToStart() or firstPostInc(), is more efficient.
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar32       first32(void) = 0;

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the first code point in its
   * iteration range, returns that code point, and moves the position
   * to the second code point. This is an alternative to setToStart()
   * for forward iteration with next32PostInc().
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar32       first32PostInc(void);

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit or code point in its
   * iteration range. This can be used to begin a forward
   * iteration with nextPostInc() or next32PostInc().
   * @return the start position of the iteration range
   * @stable
   */
  inline int32_t    setToStart();

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the last code unit in its
   * iteration range, and returns that code unit.
   * This can be used to begin an iteration with previous().
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar         last(void) = 0;
        
  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the last code point in its
   * iteration range, and returns that code unit.
   * This can be used to begin an iteration with previous32().
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar32       last32(void) = 0;

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to the end of its iteration range, just behind
   * the last code unit or code point. This can be used to begin a backward
   * iteration with previous() or previous32().
   * @return the end position of the iteration range
   * @stable
   */
  inline int32_t    setToEnd();

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the "position"-th code unit
   * in the text-storage object the iterator refers to, and
   * returns that code unit.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar         setIndex(int32_t position) = 0;

  /**
   * Sets the iterator to refer to the beginning of the code point
   * that contains the "position"-th code unit
   * in the text-storage object the iterator refers to, and
   * returns that code point.
   * The current position is adjusted to the beginning of the code point
   * (its first code unit).
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar32       setIndex32(int32_t position) = 0;

  /**
   * Returns the code unit the iterator currently refers to.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar         current(void) const = 0;
        
  /**
   * Returns the code point the iterator currently refers to.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar32       current32(void) const = 0;
        
  /**
   * Advances to the next code unit in the iteration range
   * (toward endIndex()), and returns that code unit.  If there are
   * no more code units to return, returns DONE.
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar         next(void) = 0;
        
  /**
   * Advances to the next code point in the iteration range
   * (toward endIndex()), and returns that code point.  If there are
   * no more code points to return, returns DONE.
   * Note that iteration with "pre-increment" semantics is less
   * efficient than iteration with "post-increment" semantics
   * that is provided by next32PostInc().
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar32       next32(void) = 0;
        
  /**
   * Advances to the previous code unit in the iteration rance
   * (toward startIndex()), and returns that code unit.  If there are
   * no more code units to return, returns DONE.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar         previous(void) = 0;

  /**
   * Advances to the previous code point in the iteration rance
   * (toward startIndex()), and returns that code point.  If there are
   * no more code points to return, returns DONE.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UChar32       previous32(void) = 0;

  /**
   * Returns FALSE if there are no more code units or code points
   * before the current position in the iteration range.
   * This is used with previous() or previous32() in backward
   * iteration.
   * @stable
   */
  virtual UBool        hasPrevious() = 0;

  /**
   * Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage
   * object of the character returned by first().  Since it's
   * possible to create an iterator that iterates across only
   * part of a text-storage object, this number isn't
   * necessarily 0.  
   * @stable
   */
  inline int32_t       startIndex(void) const;
        
  /**
   * Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage
   * object of the position immediately BEYOND the character
   * returned by last().  
   * @stable
   */
  inline int32_t       endIndex(void) const;
        
  /**
   * Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage
   * object of the character the iterator currently refers to
   * (i.e., the character returned by current()).  
   * @stable
   */
  inline int32_t       getIndex(void) const;

  /**
   * Returns the length of the entire text in the underlying
   * text-storage object.
   * @stable
   */
  inline int32_t           getLength() const;

  /**
   * Moves the current position relative to the start or end of the
   * iteration range, or relative to the current position itself.
   * The movement is expressed in numbers of code units forward
   * or backward by specifying a positive or negative delta.
   * @return the new position
   * @stable
   */
  virtual int32_t      move(int32_t delta, EOrigin origin) = 0;

  /**
   * Moves the current position relative to the start or end of the
   * iteration range, or relative to the current position itself.
   * The movement is expressed in numbers of code points forward
   * or backward by specifying a positive or negative delta.
   * @return the new position
   * @stable
   */
  virtual int32_t      move32(int32_t delta, EOrigin origin) = 0;

  /**
   * Copies the text under iteration into the UnicodeString
   * referred to by "result".  
   * @param result Receives a copy of the text under iteration.  
   * @stable
   */
  virtual void            getText(UnicodeString&  result) = 0;

protected:
  CharacterIterator() {}
  CharacterIterator(int32_t length);
  CharacterIterator(int32_t length, int32_t position);
  CharacterIterator(int32_t length, int32_t textBegin, int32_t textEnd, int32_t position);
  CharacterIterator(const CharacterIterator &that);

  CharacterIterator &operator=(const CharacterIterator &that);

  int32_t      textLength; // need this for correct getText() and hashCode()
  int32_t  pos;
  int32_t  begin;
  int32_t  end;
};

inline UBool
00569 ForwardCharacterIterator::operator!=(const ForwardCharacterIterator& that) const {
  return !operator==(that);
}

inline int32_t
00574 CharacterIterator::setToStart() {
  return move(0, kStart);
}

inline int32_t
00579 CharacterIterator::setToEnd() {
  return move(0, kEnd);
}

inline int32_t
00584 CharacterIterator::startIndex(void) const {
  return begin;
}

inline int32_t
00589 CharacterIterator::endIndex(void) const {
  return end;
}

inline int32_t
00594 CharacterIterator::getIndex(void) const {
  return pos;
}

inline int32_t
00599 CharacterIterator::getLength(void) const {
  return textLength;
}

U_NAMESPACE_END
#endif

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